The CPP Council – The College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy has released a list of possible replacements for PA-generating herbs that are used internally.

PA-generating herb  Action  Possible replacements
Comfrey leaf/root


Vulnerary Gotu kola, calendula, meadowsweet, liquorice, German chamomile, Aloe vera, Echinacea, goldenseal, St John’s wort, daisy, Arnica, thyme, horsetail, greater celandine, pau d’arco.
Comfrey leaf, coltsfoot leaf Demulcent (GIT) Marshmallow root, ribwort plantain, broadleaf plantain, psyllium, slippery elm, mullein, flaxseed, Irish moss.
Comfrey leaf, coltsfoot leaf Demulcent (respiratory) Marshmallow leaf, liquorice, flaxseed, ribwort plantain, mullein, Irish moss.
Comfrey leaf Demulcent (urinary) Marshmallow leaf, couch grass, Pellitory-of-the-wall, parsley piert, broadleaf plantain, ribwort plantain, barley.
Comfrey leaf/root Emollient Aloe vera, marshmallow leaf, oats, liquorice, flaxseed, ribwort plantain, broadleaf plantain, psyllium, slippery elm.
Coltsfoot Anticatarrhal Eyebright, ground ivy, goldenseal, ribwort plantain, elderflower, goldenrod, mullein, marsh cudweed.
Coltsfoot Antitussive Autumn cherry, Californian poppy, wild lettuce.
Coltsfoot Expectorant Elecampane, horehound, angelica, elderflower, thyme, lobelia, cowslip, sweet violet, daisy, garlic, gumweed, ginger.
Coltsfoot Respiratory spasmolytic Deadly nightshade, thorn apple, joint-fir, gumweed, liquorice, lobelia, hyssop, thyme, cramp bark.
Borage Adrenal tonic Liquorice, Chinese foxglove, blackcurrant, reishi, adaptogens.
Borage Antidepressant Oats, St John’s wort, lavender, damiana, vervain, goji, blackcurrant, rosemary, Korean ginseng etc.
Borage Antistress Dang Shen, Siberian ginseng, liquorice, ashwagandha, blackcurrant etc.
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